International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities Maritime Buoyage System
Figure: The IALA Maritime Buoyage System is divided into two regions. Region A includes part of the Atlantic Ocean, Africa, Europe, Asia, Middle East, Australia and part of the Pacific Ocean. Region B includes North and South America. This information is believed to be correct at time of issue by IALA (March 2010). It is not to be used for navigation and users should consult current nautical publications for latest status.
The following is an excerpt from the Maritime Buoyage System 2010. The full document is available for purchase from the International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA).
PRIOR TO 1976
There was once more than thirty different buoyage systems in use world-wide, many of these systems having rules in complete conflict with one another.
There has long been disagreement over the way in which buoy lights should be used since they first appeared towards the end of the 19th century. In particular, some countries favoured using red lights to mark the port hand side of channels and others favoured them for marking the starboard hand.
Another major difference of opinion revolved around the principles to be applied when laying out marks to assist the mariner. Most countries adopted the principle of the Lateral system whereby marks indicate the port and starboard sides of the route to be followed according to some agreed direction. However, several countries also favoured using the principle of Cardinal marks whereby dangers are marked by one or more buoys or beacons laid out in the quadrants of the compass to indicate where the danger lies in relation to the mark, this system being particularly useful in the open sea where the Lateral buoyage direction may not be apparent.
The nearest approach to international agreement on a unified system of buoyage was reached at Geneva in 1936. This Agreement, drawn up under the auspices of the League of Nations, was never ratified due to the outbreak of World War II. The Agreement proposed the use of either Cardinal marks or Lateral marks but separated them into two different systems. It provided for the use of the colour red on port hand marks and largely reserved the colour green for wreck marking.
At the end of World War II many countries found their aids to navigation destroyed and the process of restoration had to be undertaken urgently. In the absence of anything better, the Geneva rules were adopted with or without variation to suit local conditions and the equipment available. This led to wide and sometimes conflicting differences particularly in the crowded waters of North Western Europe. In 1957 the, then, International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) was formed in order to support the goals of the technical lighthouse conferences which had been convening since 1929. Attempts to bring complete unity had little success. Fresh impetus was given to the task of the (IALA) Technical Committee, by a series of disastrous wrecks in the Dover Strait area in 1971. These wrecks, situated in one lane of a traffic separation scheme, defied all attempts to mark them in a way that could be readily understood by mariners.
There were three basic issues to address:
- the need to retain existing equipment as far as possible to avoid undue expense
- the need to define how the colours green and red were to be used when marking channels
- the need to combine Lateral and Cardinal rules.
To meet the conflicting requirements, it was thought necessary as a first step to formulate two systems, one using the colour red to mark the port hand side of the channels and the other using the colour red to mark the starboard hand side of channels. These were called System A and System B, respectively.
The rules for System A, which included both cardinal and lateral marks, were completed in 1976and agreed by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The System was introduced in 1977 and its use has gradually spread throughout Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Africa, the Gulf and some Asian Countries.
The rules for System B were completed in early 1980. These were considered to be suitable for application in North, Central and South America, Japan, Republic of Korea and Philippines.
The rules for the two Systems were so similar that the (IALA) Executive Committee was able to combine the two sets of rules into one, known as “The (IALA) Maritime Buoyage System”. This single set of rules allows Lighthouse Authorities the choice of using red to port or red to starboard, on a regional basis; the two regions being known as Region A and Region B.
At a Conference convened by (IALA) in November 1980 with the assistance of IMO and the International Hydrographic Organization, Lighthouse Authorities from 50 countries and the representatives of nine International Organizations concerned with aids to navigation met and agreed to adopt the rules of the new combined System. The boundaries of the buoyage regions were also decided and illustrated on a map annexed to the rules. The Conference underlined the need for cooperation between neighbouring countries and with Hydrographic Services in the introduction of the new System.
Although the Maritime Buoyage System (MBS) has served the maritime community well since its inception in the 1970s, after the 2006 IALA Conference in Shanghai, China, it was decided to review the system in light of changes in the navigation environment and the further development of electronic aids to navigation.
Worldwide consultation revealed that the fundamental principles of the MBS should be retained. However, due to changes in navigation practices and patterns, as well as innovations and technological developments, some enhancements to the MBS were needed.
Ideally, a unified marking arrangement would, in principle, be desirable for Regions A and B. All IALA Members view this change as impractical, detrimental to safety, and probably unachievable. However, with the aim of improving navigational safety, advances towards a global unified system can be achieved through adoption of common characteristics, such as consistent lighting rhythms, on port and starboard hand marks regardless of region.
The most significant changes in the 2010 revision are the inclusion of aids to navigation used for marking recommended by (IALA) that are additional to the floating buoyage system previously included. This is aimed at providing a more complete description of aids to navigation that may be used. It includes the Emergency Wreck Marking Buoy, descriptions of other aids to navigation specifically excluded from the original MBS, and the integration of electronic marks via radio transmission. With regards to aids to navigation, the changes provided by this revision will allow the emerging e-Navigation concept to be based upon the marks provided by this booklet.
Thus, the (IALA) Maritime Buoyage System will continue to help all Mariners, navigating anywhere in the world, to fix their position and avoid dangers without fear of ambiguity, now and for the years to come.
Continuity and harmonization of Aids to Navigation Marking is to be encouraged by all competent maritime authorities.
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