Chapter 2: Regulations and Guidelines

Chapter 2: Regulations and Guidelines [PDF - 1.9 MB]

2.1 General

The Canada Shipping Act applies to all Canadian territorial waters and fishing zones. Arctic shipping in Canada is governed by several pieces of legislation. Principally these are the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act and its regulations, the Canada Shipping Act 2001, the Marine Liability Act, the Marine Transportation Security Act, the Coasting Trade Act and the Canada Labour Code, as well as the Charts and Nautical Publications Regulations, 1995, and Navigation Safety Regulations made pursuant to the Canada Shipping Act. These acts and regulations were created to enhance safety and to protect life, health, property and the marine environment. It is the responsibility of ship owners and operators to ensure that they comply with all applicable acts and regulations.

2.2 Charts and Nautical Publications Regulations, 1995

The Charts and Nautical Publications Regulations, 1995, apply to all ships in Canadian waters. The only exception is for the Master and owner of a ship of less than 100 tons where the person in charge of navigation has sufficient knowledge of a variety of features and hazards so that safe and efficient navigation in the area where the ship is to be navigated is not compromised.

The Charts and Nautical Publications Regulations, 1995, stipulate that ships must carry and use the most up-to-date, largest scale editions of the required charts and publications for the area to be navigated. The charts and publications used must be maintained with the latest information available from Notices to Mariners, Notices to Shipping or Radio Navigational Warnings before being used for the navigation of the ship. To guide mariners in acquiring appropriate charts, there is a list of charts required for travel to specific Canadian locations published in Notices to Mariners Annual Edition.

The regulations require that ships carry the various publications that would be required normally for safe navigation, but they also require that “where the ship is making a voyage during which ice may be encountered" this manual, Ice Navigation in Canadian Waters, be on board. This regulation also applies to Canadian ships in waters other than Canada's if they will be encountering ice.

2.3 Marine Machinery Regulations

Under the Canada Shipping Act SOR/90-264, the Marine Machinery Regulations, Schedule VII, Part I, Division IV states that for ships required to operate in ice-covered waters where ice may choke sea-water inlets, maintenance of essential seawater supply shall be maintained by

  1. diversion arrangements for warmed cooling water from overboard discharges into sea- water inlet boxes;
  2. means to clear sea-water inlet boxes, preferably by steam that has a pressure not in excess of the design working pressure of the sea-water inlet boxes and that is vented to the upper deck by means of a valved pipe; and
  3. ensuring sea-water inlet strainers have
    1. perforations approximately 20 mm in diameter to prevent ingestion of large ice particles, and
    2. a strainer perforated area approximately 5 times the total cross-sectional area of the inlet pipes being served to ensure full fluid flow in slush ice conditions.

Warning:

Ice conditions can be treacherous on the St. Lawrence River. Fresh water, currents, tide and water depth can push frazile ice down to depths of more than 10 metres and can plug seawater cooling inlets. This is an unusual occurrence and is rarely encountered in other parts of the world.

2.4 Supplementary Publications

There is a vast amount of information concerning navigation in ice in this manual and within the Sailing Directions published by the Canadian Hydrographic Service. Other publications that are useful for the Navigation Officer, the Ice Navigator in the Arctic or the ship's Master are listed in Annex B, particularly MANICE and Ice Atlases for ice information. Mariners can also consult other publications such as Ice Seamanship, the Mariner's Handbook, the Ice Navigation Manual and the Polar Shipping Guide which offer navigational guidance in ice.

Note:

For a complete list of Marine Transportation Acts and Regulations, please refer to the Transport Canada website

Figure 8: Heavy icebreaker CCGS Terry Fox

Heavy icebreaker CCGS Terry Fox

2.5 Regulations and Guidelines for Southern Canadian Ice Covered Waters

2.5.1 Joint Industry - Government Guidelines for the Control of Oil Tankers and Bulk Chemical Carriers in Ice Control Zones of Eastern Canada (JIGs) TP15163

These guidelines apply to all laden oil tankers and to tankers carrying liquid chemicals in bulk when proceeding through an active Ice Control Zone in Eastern Canadian waters and fishing zones south of 60° north. The Canadian Coast Guard may declare any ice control zone to be an active Ice Control Zone and promulgate this information via Notices to Shipping and Notices to Mariners. When proceeding through an active Ice Control Zone, all ships to which the guidelines apply should, have on board at least one "Ice Advisor", who meets the requirements as prescribed in JIGs. The guidelines are available on the Transport Canada website. Figure 9 shows the Eastern Canada Ice Control Zones.

Figure 9: Eastern Canada Ice Control Zones

Map of Eastern Canada Ice Control Zones

2.5.2 Guidelines for Navigation Under the Confederation Bridge TP 13681

Under these guidelines, vessels of over 1,500 Gross Register Tonnage (GRT) are required to utilize the central navigation channel, which is a compulsory pilotage zone pursuant to regulations made under the Pilotage Act. Traffic in the Northumberland Strait in the area of the Bridge is regulated by the Vessel Traffic Services Zones Regulations. When the Strait is declared an active ice zone and ice is present in the navigation channel the transiting vessel must be escorted by a suitably sized icebreaker. The guidelines are available on the Transport Canada website.

2.5.3 Winter Navigation on the River and Gulf of St. Lawrence TP 14355

The publication is a complement to Ice Navigation in Canadian Waters and is intended for use by ship owners, operators, charterers, agents and ships' officers who seek practical information on hazards which may be encountered when transiting eastern Canadian ice covered waters and in the St. Lawrence River. The publication provides advice for mariners who may be exposed to ice, freezing spray, slush ice and cold temperatures as well as the effects on machinery spaces, sea inlet boxes, deck equipment, lifesaving appliances, living quarters, the navigation bridge, cargo hold and ballast operations.

2.5.4 Interim Standards for the Construction, Equipment & Operation of Passenger Ships in the Sea Ice Areas of Eastern Canada TP 8941

These standards apply to all passenger ships that are registered in Canada or engaged in the coasting trade of Canada when operating within a declared sea ice area within economic zones of eastern Canada. The standards are available on the Transport Canada website.

2.6 Regulations and Guidelines for the Canadian Arctic

Through the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act (AWPPA) of 1970, the Government of Canada through Marine Safety, a branch of Transport Canada enforces its responsibility for ensuring navigation in Arctic waters is conducted to preserve and protect the sensitive northern ecosystem. Under the AWPPA there are several regulations that affect vessel navigation in the Arctic.

As well as the various international and Canadian regulations governing marine navigation, there are a number of regulations of specific interest to mariners which deal with shipping in the Canadian Arctic. The following are among the more important regulations:

  • Arctic Shipping Pollution Prevention Regulations
  • Shipping Safety Control Zones Order
  • Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Regulations
  • Navigation Safety Regulations
  • Ship Station (Radio) Regulations
  • Charts and Nautical Publications Regulations, 1995

Each of the regulations, standards or publications mentioned have been condensed to illustrate only the pertinent sections that may have the greatest impact on Arctic operations. Mariners are cautioned that this list of regulations is in no way exhaustive, and that the identified regulations are subject to ongoing amendments. Mariners are advised to familiarize themselves with all current regulations governing areas of interest. Copies of Canadian government regulations are available on the Transport Canada website.

The Arctic Water Pollution Prevention Act (AWPPA) and the Arctic Water Pollution Prevention Regulations (AWPPR) provide measures to prevent pollution from ships, and in particular, the deposit of waste into Arctic waters. The Arctic Shipping Pollution Prevention Regulations (ASPPR) deal with construction and operational aspects of navigating in the Arctic, including the need for Ice Navigators. The ASPPR contains the Zone/Date System, which is a system dividing the Arctic into 16 Safety Control Zones, each with fixed opening and closing dates for ships of various ice capabilities. The Arctic Ice Regime Shipping System (AIRSS) was introduced as a more flexible system that uses the actual ice conditions to determine whether entry is allowed in an ice regime. An Arctic Water Pollution Prevention Certificate may be issued to a vessel outside of Canada by an IACS recognized Classification Society.

2.6.1 Arctic Shipping Pollution Prevention Regulations (ASPPR)

The Arctic Shipping Pollution Prevention Regulations govern construction and operational aspects of navigating in the Arctic, including the need for Ice Navigators and an Arctic Pollution Prevention Certificates. In general, the Arctic Shipping Pollution Prevention Regulations do not apply to a ship of 100 gross tons or less; however sections 28 and 29 referring to sewage and oil deposits apply to every ship.

The ASPPR introduces the Zone / Date System in which the Arctic waters are divided into sixteen Shipping Safety Control Zones, with a schedule of earliest and latest entry dates for each zone corresponding to specific categories of vessels. Zone 1 has the most severe ice conditions and Zone 16 the least. Figure 10 is a map of the Canadian Arctic illustrating the sixteen Shipping Safety Control Zones (excerpt from Schedule II of the Shipping Safety Control Zones Order). The map is designed to be used with the Dates of Entry table (Table 1) from Schedule VIII of the ASPPR. Table 2 provides a comparison of various classification societies' Ice Strengthening Class or open-water designation for Types A, B, C, D and E Ships (Schedule V, of the ASPPR) to assist with the use of the Zone/Date System. Using the table in Schedule VIII of the AWPPA, an operator can determine the legal periods of entry into the various Zones. AIRSS is currently used only when making access decisions outside of the established dates.

Under the ASPPR no ship carrying more than 453m3 of oil shall navigate in any of the zones illustrated unless the ship itself meets prescribed construction standards as either a Polar Class ship, Arctic Class ship, a Canadian Arctic Category (CAC) ship or a Type A, B, C, D or E ship. The Type E designation refers to an open-water ship. For those ships carrying less than the 453m3 of oil, the Zone / Date System does not apply. However, the remainder of the regulations still apply.

For new construction, it is now recommended that vessels are built to standards based upon Polar Classes set out in the IACS Unified Requirements for Polar Ships. Owners of ships built to polar standards of other Classification Societies and national authorities can apply for Polar Class equivalency on a case-by-case basis, as may owners of vessels previously classified under the existing Canadian system for Arctic Class or CAC vessels. For information on application of the Zone/Date System in relation to Polar Class vessels, refer to the Ship Safety Bulletin 04/2009 IACS Unified Requirements for Polar Class Ships - Application in Canadian Arctic Waters.

2.6.2 Arctic Pollution Prevention Certificate

Ships with a valid Arctic Pollution Prevention Certificate comply with the Arctic Shipping Pollution Prevention Regulations. Vessels without the certificate, which is not mandatory, may be inspected to verify their compliance with the regulations. All vessels are encouraged to have a valid Arctic Certificate issued prior to undertaking any voyage into the Shipping Safety Control Zones. The certificate may be issued by an approved Classification Society or within Canada waters by the Administration. It should be noted that all certificates expire on March 31st following the date of issue.

The Arctic Pollution Prevention Certificate indicates the ice class of the vessel at specific drafts. Mariners intending to navigate in ice-covered waters should be aware of the ice class or type of their ship, and have a good understanding of the combinations of ice conditions and operating procedures that are likely to be safe for the voyage.

2.6.3 Equivalent Standards for the Construction of Arctic Class Ships - TP 12260

Transport Canada currently recommends that vessels should not be built to this standard, which came into force on January 1st, 1996 replacing Schedule VI of the ASPRR. The IACS Unified Requirements for Polar Ships should be used instead. For information on application of AIRSS and the Zone/Date system in relation to Polar Class vessels, refer to the Ship Safety Bulletin 04/2009 IACS Unified Requirements for Polar Class Ships - Application in Canadian Arctic Waters.

Figure 10: Shipping Safety Control Zones

Map of Shipping Safety Control Zones

Table 1: Dates of Entry into Shipping Safety Control Zones
Category Arctic Class 10 Arctic Class 8 Arctic Class 7 Arctic Class 6 Arctic Class 4 Arctic Class 3 Arctic Class 2
Zone 1 All Year July 1 to Oct. 15 Aug. 1 to Sept. 30 Aug. 15 to Sept. 15 Aug. 15 to Sept. 15 Aug. 20 to Sept. 15 No Entry
Zone 2 All Year All Year Aug. 1 to Nov. 30 Aug. 1 to Oct. 31 Aug. 15 to Oct. 15 Aug. 20 to Sept. 30 No Entry
Zone 3 All Year All Year July 1 to Dec. 31 July 15 to Nov. 30 July 15 to Oct. 31 July 25 to Oct. 15 Aug. 15 to Sept. 30
Zone 4 All Year All Year July 1 to Dec. 15 July 15 to Nov. 30 July 15 to Nov. 15 July 20 to Nov. 5 Aug. 1 to Oct. 31
Zone 5 All Year All Year July 1 to Dec. 15 Aug. 1 to Oct. 15 Aug. 15 to Sept. 30 Aug. 20 to Sept. 25 No Entry
Zone 6 All Year All Year All Year July 15 to Feb. 28 July 20 to Dec. 31 Aug. 1 to Nov. 30 Aug. 15 to Nov. 20
Zone 7 All Year All Year All Year July 1 to Mar. 31 July 15 to Jan. 15 July 20 to Dec. 15 Aug. 1 to Nov. 20
Zone 8 All Year All Year All Year July 1 to Mar. 31 July 15 to Jan. 15 July 20 to Dec. 31 Aug. 1 to Nov. 30
Zone 9 All Year All Year All Year All Year July 10 to Mar. 31 July 20 to Jan. 20 Aug. 1 to Dec. 20
Zone 10 All Year All Year All Year All Year July 10 to Feb. 28 July 15 to Jan. 25 July 25 to Dec. 20
Zone 11 All Year All Year All Year July 1 to Mar. 31 July 5 to Jan. 15 July 5 to Dec. 15 July 10 to Nov. 20
Zone 12 All Year All Year All Year All Year June 1 to Jan. 31 June 10 to Dec. 31 June 15 to Dec. 5
Zone 13 All Year All Year All Year All Year June 1 to Feb. 15 June 10 to Dec. 31 June 25 to Nov. 22
Zone 14 All Year All Year All Year All Year June 15 to Feb. 15 June 20 to Jan. 10 June 25 to Dec. 10
Zone 15 All Year All Year All Year All Year June 15 to Mar. 15 June 20 to Jan. 31 June 25 to Dec. 20
Zone 16 All Year All Year All Year All Year June 1 to Feb. 15 June 5 to Jan. 10 June 10 to Dec. 10
Table 1 (... continued): Dates of Entry into Shipping Safety Control Zones
Category Arctic Class 1 Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E
Zone 1 No Entry No Entry No Entry No Entry No Entry No Entry
Zone 2 No Entry No Entry No Entry No Entry No Entry No Entry
Zone 3 No Entry Aug. 20 to Sept. 10 Aug. 20 to Sept. 5 No Entry No Entry No Entry
Zone 4 No Entry Aug. 20 to Sept. 20 Aug. 20 to Sept. 15 No Entry No Entry No Entry
Zone 5 No Entry No Entry No Entry No Entry No Entry No Entry
Zone 6 Aug. 25 to Sept. 30 Aug. 15 to Oct. 15 Aug. 25 to Sept. 30 Aug. 25 to Sept. 25 No Entry No Entry
Zone 7 Aug. 10 to Oct. 15 Aug. 1 to Oct. 25 Aug. 10 to Oct. 15 Aug. 10 to Oct. 10 Aug. 10 to Oct. 5 Aug. 10 to Sept. 30
Zone 8 Aug. 10 to Oct. 31 Aug. 1 to Nov. 10 Aug. 10 to Oct. 31 Aug. 10 to Oct. 25 Aug. 15 to Oct. 20 Aug. 20 to Oct. 20
Zone 9 Aug. 10 to Oct. 31 Aug. 1 to Nov. 20 Aug. 10 to Oct. 31 Aug. 10 to Oct. 25 Aug. 15 to Oct. 20 Aug. 20 to Oct. 15
Zone 10 Aug. 1 to Oct. 31 July 25 to Nov. 20 Aug. 1 to Oct. 31 Aug. 1 to Oct. 25 Aug. 5 to Oct. 20 Aug. 10 to Oct. 20
Zone 11 July 15 to Oct. 20 July 10 to Oct. 31 July 15 to Oct. 20 July 15 to Oct. 15 July 15 to Oct. 10 July 15 to Sept. 30
Zone 12 July 1 to Oct. 31 June 15 to Nov. 10 July 1 to Oct. 25 July 1 to Oct. 25 July 1 to Oct. 20 July 1 to Oct. 20
Zone 13 July 15 to Oct. 15 June 25 to Oct. 22 July 15 to Oct. 15 July 15 to Oct. 10 July 30 to Sept. 30 Aug. 15 to Sept. 20
Zone 14 July 1 to Nov. 30 June 25 to Nov. 30 July 1 to Nov. 30 July 1 to Nov. 25 July 10 to Nov. 10 July 20 to Oct. 31
Zone 15 July 1 to Nov. 30 June 25 to Dec. 5 July 1 to Nov. 30 July 1 to Nov. 25 July 5 to Nov. 10 July 20 to Nov. 5
Zone 16 June 20 to Nov. 15 June 20 to Nov. 20 June 20 to Nov. 10 June 25 to Nov. 10 July 1 to Oct. 31 July 1 to Oct. 31

Source: Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act Schedule VIII

Schedule V of the ASPPR Construction Standards for Types A, B, C, D and E Ships

Schedule V of the ASPPR Construction Standards for Type A
Col. 1 - Type of Ship
  • Type A
Col. II - American Bureau of Shipping
  • A1 EO Ice strengthening Class AA AMS

or

  • A1 EO Ice strengthening Class 1AA AMS
Col. III - Bureau Veritas
  • 1 3/3 E glace I-super

or

  • 1 3/3 E Ice Class 1A Super
Col. IV - Det Norske Veritas
  • 1 A 1 ICE A*

or

  • 1 A 1 ICE 1A*
Col. V - Germanischer Lloyd
  • 100 A 4 E 4 MC
Col. VI - Lloyd's Register of Shipping
  • 100 A1 Ice Class 1* LMC

or

  • 100A1 Ice Class 1A Super LMC
Col. VII - Nippon Kaiji Kyokai 1
  • NS* (Class 1A Super Ice strengthening) MNS*

or

  • NS* Class AA 1S MNS*
Col. VIII - Polski Rejestr Statkow 1
  • *KM YLA

or

  • *KM YL
Col. IX - Register of Shipping of the USSR
  • KM J ULA

or

  • KM J UL
Col. X - Registro Italiano Navale
  • 100A-1.1 RG 1*

or

  • 100A-1.1 1AS
Col. XI - Registrul Naval Roman
  • RNR M G 60 CM O

or

  • RNR M G 50 CM O
Schedule V of the ASPPR Construction Standards for Type B
Col. 1 - Type of Ship
  • Type B
Col. II - American Bureau of Shipping
  • A1 EO Ice strengthening Class A AMS

or

  • A1 EO Ice strengthening Class 1A AMS
Col. III - Bureau Veritas
  • 1 3/3 E glace I

or

  • 1 3/3 E Ice Class 1A
Col. IV - Det Norske Veritas
  • 1 A 1 ICE A

or

  • 1 A 1 ICE 1A
Col. V - Germanischer Lloyd
  • 100 A 4 E 3 MC
Col. VI - Lloyd's Register of Shipping
  • 100 A1 Ice Class 1 LMC

or

  • 100A1 Ice Class 1A LMC
Col. VII - Nippon Kaiji Kyokai 1
  • NS* (Class 1A Ice strengthening) MNS*

or

  • NS* Class A 1S MNS*
Col. VIII - Polski Rejestr Statkow 1
  • *KM L1
Col. IX - Register of Shipping of the USSR
  • KM J L1
Col. X - Registro Italiano Navale
  • 100A-1.1 RG 1

or

  • 100A-1.1 1A
Col. XI - Registrul Naval Roman
  • RNR M G 40 CM O
Schedule V of the ASPPR Construction Standards for Type C
Col. 1 - Type of Ship
  • Type C
Col. II - American Bureau of Shipping
  • A1 EO Ice strengthening Class B AMS

or

  • A1 EO Ice strengthening Class 1B AMS
Col. III - Bureau Veritas
  • 1 3/3 E glace II

or

  • 1 3/3 E Ice Class 1B
Col. IV - Det Norske Veritas
  • 1 A 1 ICE B

or

  • 1 A 1 ICE 1B
Col. V - Germanischer Lloyd
  • 100 A 4 E 2 MC
Col. VI - Lloyd's Register of Shipping
  • 100 A1 Ice Class 2 LMC

or

  • 100A1 Ice Class 1B LMC
Col. VII - Nippon Kaiji Kyokai 1
  • NS* (Class 1B Ice strengthening) MNS*

or

  • NS* Class B 1S MNS*
Col. VIII - Polski Rejestr Statkow 1
  • *KM L2
Col. IX - Register of Shipping of the USSR
  • KM J L2
Col. X - Registro Italiano Navale
  • 100A-1.1 RG 2

or

  • 100A-1.1 1B
Col. XI - Registrul Naval Roman
  • RNR M G 30 CM O
Schedule V of the ASPPR Construction Standards for Type D
Col. 1 - Type of Ship
  • Type D
Col. II - American Bureau of Shipping
  • A1 EO Ice strengthening Class C AMS

or

  • A1 EO Ice strengthening Class 1C AMS
Col. III - Bureau Veritas
  • 1 3/3 E glace III

or

  • 1 3/3 E Ice Class 1C
Col. IV - Det Norske Veritas
  • 1 A 1 ICE C

or

  • 1 A 1 ICE 1C
Col. V - Germanischer Lloyd
  • 100 A 4 E 1 MC
Col. VI - Lloyd's Register of Shipping
  • 100 A1 Ice Class 3 LMC

or

  • 100A1 Ice Class 1D LMC
Col. VII - Nippon Kaiji Kyokai 1
  • NS* (Class 1C Ice strengthening) MNS*

or

  • NS* Class C 1S MNS*
Col. VIII - Polski Rejestr Statkow 1
  • *KM L3

or

  • KM L4
Col. IX - Register of Shipping of the USSR
  • KM J L3
Col. X - Registro Italiano Navale
  • 100A-1.1 RG 3

or

  • 100A-1.1 1C
Col. XI - Registrul Naval Roman
  • RNR M G 20 CM O
Schedule V of the ASPPR Construction Standards for Type E
Col. 1 - Type of Ship
  • Type E
Col. II - American Bureau of Shipping
  • A1 EO AMS
Col. III - Bureau Veritas
  • 1 3/3 E
Col. IV - Det Norske Veritas
  • 1 A 1
Col. V - Germanischer Lloyd
  • 100 A 4 MC
Col. VI - Lloyd's Register of Shipping
  • 100 A1 LMC
Col. VII - Nippon Kaiji Kyokai 1
  • NS* MNS*
Col. VIII - Polski Rejestr Statkow 1
  • *KM
Col. IX - Register of Shipping of the USSR
  • KM J
Col. X - Registro Italiano Navale
  • 100A-1.1
Col. XI - Registrul Naval Roman
  • RNR M CM O

2.6.4 Guidelines for Ships Operating in Polar Waters

Recognizing that certain hazards commonly found in Arctic and Antarctic waters are not adequately addressed by SOLAS and MARPOL, the IMO Guidelines for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (Polar Guidelines) aim to promote safety of navigation and to prevent pollution from ship operations in polar waters. The Guidelines, when applied in their entirety, result in a holistic approach covering the design and outfitting of ships for the conditions that they will encounter, their crewing by adequate numbers of suitably trained personnel, and their operation in a planned and prudent manner.

The Polar Guidelines take into account that the single most significant factor in polar operations is ice by recommending that only those ships with a Polar Class designation or a comparable alternative standard of ice-strengthening appropriate to the anticipated ice conditions should operate in polar ice-covered waters. The Polar Guidelines provide guidance in structural design or machinery requirements through reference to a parallel set of Unified Requirements for Polar Ships developed by the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS).

The Polar Guidelines also address the fact that the polar environment imposes additional demands on ship systems such as: navigation, communications, lifesaving, fire-fighting, etc. They emphasize the need to ensure that all ship systems are capable of functioning effectively under anticipated operating conditions, notably the possibility of extreme cold. The Polar Guidelines stipulate that systems should provide adequate levels of safety in emergencies. In addition, The Polar Guidelines recognize that safe operation in polar conditions requires specific attention to human factors including training and operational procedures.

All ships operating under the Polar Guidelines should carry on board a sufficient number of Ice Navigators to guide operations when ice is present. The Guidelines define an Ice Navigator as "any individual who, in addition to being qualified under the Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) Convention, is specially trained and otherwise qualified to direct the movement of a ship in ice-covered waters".

2.6.5 Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) Code

Guidance regarding training of masters and officers for ships operating in polar waters is contained in the Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) Code, Section B-V/g*. Work to further develop internationally recognized criteria for training and experience for ice navigators is underway at IMO as part of the development of a proposal for a mandatory Polar Code. With respect to Canadian regulations, the specific qualifications of an Ice Navigator are stated in Section 26 of the ASPPR.

Section B-V/g* of the STCW Code provides guidance for training masters and officers for ships operating in polar waters. It is important that masters, officers in charge of a navigational watch and officers in charge of an engineering watch on board ships operating in polar waters should have relevant experience and training.

Prior to being assigned duties on board such ships, Masters and officers in charge of a navigational watch should have basic knowledge on the following subjects 2 to 11. Officers in charge of an engineering watch should have a basic knowledge of subjects 3, 6, 10 and 11. Masters and Chief Engineer Officers should have sufficient and appropriate experience in operating ships in polar waters.

  1. Ice characteristics – ice areas
  2. Ship's performance in ice and cold climate
  3. Voyage and passage planning for a ship in ice
  4. Operating and handling a ship in ice (operations and navigation)
  5. Operating and handling a ship in ice (propulsion, rudder and other engineering systems)
  6. Regulations and recommendations
  7. Equipment limitations
  8. Safety precautions and emergency procedures (availability and limitations of infrastructure)
  9. Safety precautions and emergency procedures (safe working procedures, common damages and limitations of fire-fighting)
  10. Environmental considerations.

2.6.6 Polar Classes

From an operational perspective, the safety of the ship will remain the ultimate responsibility of the master, who will be provided, directly or indirectly with the expertise and information needed to make prudent navigational decisions.

Ice strengthening appropriate for the conditions encountered is fundamental to safe operation in ice. Ice classes to indicate capability in ice have been established by many organizations. Canada supports use of the Polar Classes set out in the IACS Unified Requirements for Polar Ships (see in Table 3 below). The class descriptions are deliberately general to suit a variety of operations and their relationships are set to provide a reasonably smooth gradation of capability and cost.

Polar Class (PC) 1
Year-round operation in all Polar waters
Polar Class (PC) 2
Year-round operation in moderate multi-year ice conditions
Polar Class (PC) 3
Year-round operation in second-year ice which may include multi-year ice inclusions
Polar Class (PC) 4
Year-round operation in thick first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions
Polar Class (PC) 5
Year-round operation in medium first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions
Polar Class (PC) 6
Summer/autumn operation in medium first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions
Polar Class (PC) 7
Summer/autumn operation in thin first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions

Certain Polar classes are based on existing classes for which good performance data exists. The others have been interpolated between or extrapolated from the others. The lowest classes, PC 6 and PC 7, can be considered as ‘polarized' versions of the top two Baltic classes and the top classes represent levels of capability that have not yet been provided by commercial cargo-carrying vessels.

2.6.7 Arctic Ice Regime Shipping System (AIRSS) Standards - TP 12259

Referenced in the Arctic Shipping Pollution Prevention Regulations (ASPPR), the Arctic Ice Regime Shipping System (AIRSS) Standards have been developed to enhance the safety and efficiency of shipping operations in the Canadian Arctic. The standards have been developed characterize the relative risk which different ice conditions pose to the structure of different ships.

The Zone/Date System is based on rigid controls. The AIRSS emphasizes the responsibility of the Master for the safety of the ship. This provides a more flexible framework to assist in decision-making. Both systems are presently working in parallel, allowing operators to navigate outside the Zone/Date limits when ice conditions permit. Operators will continue to be able to use the Zone/Date scheme to generally plan voyages to the Arctic while being encouraged to avoid dangerous ice conditions through the use of the Ice Regime System. The application of the AIRSS will require an Ice Navigator and the use of all available ice information.

The Arctic Ice Regime Shipping Standards are based on the concept that ice conditions can be quantified through a simple Ice Numeral calculation which indicates whether or not a given set of ice conditions (regimes) will be safe for a particular vessel. A wide range of ice navigation parameters including visibility, vessel speed, manoeuvrability, the availability of an icebreaker escort and the knowledge and experience of the crew must also be considered when applying the Ice Regime System.

The AIRSS can only be used under the following circumstances:

  • If the ship has a set of Ice Multipliers. For Canadian Arctic Category (CAC) or Type ships, their Ice Multipliers are listed in the Ice Multiplier Table. For all other ships, Ice Multipliers are assigned on a case-by-case basis supported by the assessed ice strength of the vessel. For information on application of AIRSS in relation to Polar Class vessels, refer to Ship safety Bulletin 04/2009 IACS Unified Requirements for Polar Class Ships - Application in Canadian Arctic Waters.
  • If an Ice Regime Routing Message is sent to NORDREG Canada.
  • If the Ice Numerals calculated for the vessel are zero or positive for all of the ice regimes that are along the intended route.
  • The ship must have an Ice Navigator on board. The specific qualifications of an Ice Navigator are stated in Section 26 of the ASPPR.

There are several steps to follow in order to apply the Arctic Ice Regime Shipping System. Additional information is provided in section 2.6.9.

  1. Obtain the most current ice information for the planned passage and select a desired route.
  2. Determine the various ice regimes along the route and calculate the Ice Numerals for your vessel in each regime.
    The ice charts from the Canadian Ice Service are well suited to AIRSS and, based on their scale, they could be used directly to define ice regimes for voyage planning, strategic planning and to a limited extent, tactical navigation. Other forms of information, including satellite imagery, may require more interpretation by an Ice Navigator.
  3. If all the Ice Numerals are zero or greater, you must advise NORDREG Canada, through the submission of an Ice Regime Routing Message. This message does not constitute a request for permission to proceed; rather it is made for the information of the CCG Icebreaking Superintendent via NORDREG. Based on this information, a NORDREG acknowledgement may be issued for the vessel to proceed along the projected route. This represents an acknowledgement that the planned route appears appropriate - it does not relieve Masters of their responsibility to navigate with due caution and with continuous, careful attention to the local ice conditions.
  4. If the Ice Numeral for any ice regime is negative, consider the alternatives, such as selecting another route, waiting for improved in ice conditions or requesting the assistance of an icebreaker. When an icebreaker or other vessel modifies a regime, or there is a change in the ice conditions, giving positive Ice Numerals, you may proceed after advising NORDREG with the updated information.
  5. Within 30 days of completing the voyage, you must send an After Action Report to Transport Canada.

2.6.7.1 Ice Regime Routing Message

When the Arctic Ice Regime Shipping System is used, the Arctic Shipping Pollution Prevention Regulations require that an Ice Regime Routing Message be sent to NORDREG. This message can, in general, be very brief, however, if the vessel's route includes areas on ice analysis charts from the Canadian Ice Service with ice concentrations that may have negative Ice Numerals, the message should include additional pertinent information explaining the voyage plan e.g. expectations of changes in conditions and/or other considerations.

This message should be updated if there are any amendments to the ship's original Ice Regime Routing Message and that would include significant changes to the ice conditions. In any event, the ship should provide an update on entering any ice regime that was previously reported as having a negative Ice Numeral. These changes could for efficiency be attached to NORDREG's regular 1600 UTC Report.

The content of the Ice Regime Routing Message is as follows:

To: Regional Ice Operations Superintendent via NORDREG Canada

Facsimile: (867) 979 – 4236 or IQANORDREG@innav.gc.ca

Ice Regime Routing Message

  1. the ship's name,
  2. the ship's call sign and IMO number
  3. the ice strengthening of the ship (Polar Class, Type / CAC / Arctic Class / etc.),
  4. the date and UTC time,
  5. the ship's current position, course and speed,
  6. the anticipated destination,
  7. the intended route,
  8. a listing of the ice regimes and their associated Ice Numerals,
  9. the source(s) of ice information,
  10. any other pertinent information / comments,
  11. the name of any escorting vessel, and
  12. the name(s) of the Ice Navigator(s) on board

Master

2.6.7.2 After Action Report

When the Arctic Ice Regime Shipping System is used, in accordance with subsection 6(3) of the Arctic Shipping Pollution Prevention Regulations, an after action report is required to be submitted within 30 days of leaving the area. The report can be quite brief; however, in cases where the voyage has involved difficulties or unexpected occurrences, it will be valuable to include the information that the Master considers significant. Unlike the routing message, the After Action Report is to be sent to the Regional Director, Marine, Prairie & Northern Region, who receives it on behalf of the Minister of Transport. The content of the After Action Report is as follows:

To: Regional Director, Marine
Transport Canada
McDonald Building - Floor: 3
344 Edmonton Street
Winnipeg, Manitoba  R3B 2L4
Canada

Telephone: 204-984-1624

Facsimile: 204-984-8417

After Action Report

  1. the ship's name,
  2. the ice strengthening of the ship (Polar Class, Type / CAC / Arctic Class / etc.),
  3. a description of the actual route, including the: ice regimes encountered, transit speeds and the Ice Numerals for each,
  4. copies of the ice information used,
  5. escort information, if applicable,
    1. duration of the escort,
    2. the ice regime under escort, and,
    3. the characteristics of the track,
  6. weather conditions and visibility, and
  7. any other important information.

Master

To fulfill the requirements of “d" above, it is suggested that copies of ice analysis charts or imagery used on the voyage be attached to the After Action Report and to make reporting easier for ship's officers, the vessel's courses drawn over the ice charts along with brief notations describing the regimes or conditions of concern. This could in essence save a lot of time and writing.

2.6.8 Ice Navigator

Section 26 of the ASPPR includes a requirement for an Ice Navigator to be on board vessels in Arctic waters under particular circumstances.

  1. No tanker shall navigate within any zone without the aid of an Ice Navigator who is qualified in accordance with subsection (3).
  2. No ship other than a tanker shall navigate in any zone set out in the heading to each of columns II to XVII of Schedule VIII
    1. where the words “No Entry" are shown in that column of item 14, and
    2. where a period of time is shown in that column of item 14, except during that period of time, without the aid of an Ice Navigator who is qualified in accordance with subsection (3).
  3. The Ice Navigator on a ship shall
    1. be qualified to act as master or person in charge of the deck watch in accordance with regulations made pursuant to the Canada Shipping Act; and
    2. have served on a ship in the capacity of master, or person in charge of the deck watch for a total period of at least 50 days, of which 30 days must have been served in Arctic waters while the ship was in ice conditions that required the ship to be assisted by an icebreaker or to make manoeuvres to avoid concentrations of ice that might have endangered the ship.
  4. Despite subsections (1) and (2), a tanker or ship referred to in those subsections may navigate in a zone without the aid of an ice navigator during any part of the transit in open water.
  5. For the purposes of subsection (4), “open water" has the meaning assigned to that term in the Arctic Ice Regime Shipping System (AIRSS) Standards (TP 12259), published by Marine Safety, Transport Canada, in June 1996, as amended from time to time.

To summarize, an Ice Navigator is required:

  1. on tankers (when carrying oil as cargo) when in a Shipping Safety Control Zone,
  2. when any ship, over 100 gross tons is navigating outside the Type E dates from Zone / Date Table, and
  3. while using the Arctic Ice Regime Shipping System.

Beyond the requirements, having an experienced person guiding the ship when there is the potential for encountering sea ice is always recommended. It is the ship owner's responsibility to ensure that qualified persons are on board for the intended voyage.

Note:

It is the Ice Navigator's responsibility to determine the ice regimes and use them with the Ice Multipliers to determine whether the ship is capable of handling the planned route. It is the master's responsibility to decide whether or not the ship enters the ice regime.

2.6.9 Arctic Ice Regime Shipping System Pictorial Guide (AIRSS) - TP 14044

Transport Canada and the Canadian Hydraulics Centre, National Research Council of Canada published the Arctic Ice Regime Shipping System Pictorial Guide as a reference guide for the AIRSS to help explain the system and to provide images which help determine ice characteristics such as concentration and stages of development.

Ice in the Arctic is a very complex and dynamic material. It has a wide range of thickness, concentration, age and roughness. Moreover, ice conditions continually change throughout the year. There are a number of vessels that travel in Canada's Arctic and it is important that their transit through ice is safe for both personnel safety as well as preventing pollution in the Arctic. There have been over 200 reported ice damage events over the past 25 years. Approximately one-third of those events had the potential to cause pollution. AIRSS is intended to minimize the risk of damage by taking into account the actual ice conditions through which vessels sail. Because different vessels have different capabilities in ice-covered waters, each vessel is assessed and assigned to a Vessel Class. This rating reflects the strength, displacement and power of the vessel. The relative risk of damage to a vessel by different types of ice is taken into account using "weighting" factors, called Ice Multipliers. In the Ice Regime System, a simple calculation relates the strength of the ship to the danger presented by different ice regimes. The calculation gives an Ice Numeral. Ice regimes that are not likely to be hazardous have zero or "positive" Ice Numerals. Those regimes that could be dangerous have "negative" Ice Numerals. As always however, the safety of the ship is the responsibility of the Master.

2.6.9.1 Characterizing the Ice Regime

AIRSS relies upon accurately assessing the ice conditions. The Canadian Ice Service issues ice charts to provide an overview of the ice conditions in different geographic regions. Ice charts are produced using the most current available technology and give an excellent indication of the general ice conditions in an area. As such, ice charts are one of the most useful resources to provide a ship with an overview of the ice conditions in a certain area, in advance of when it is needed. That information can be used successfully for strategic planning and are very useful when the ship is confronted with difficult ice conditions, to help determine alternate routes.

Although ice charts have an important role for vessels traversing ice-covered regions, their importance is no substitute for real-time observations made from the bridge. AIRSS relies upon up-to-date information that is obtained directly from the bridge and integrates that real-time information with the capability of each vessel class. This results in customized routing for each vessel, depending upon its ice-worthiness.

2.6.9.2 Ice Multiplier

One of the principal concepts behind the Ice Regime System is that every ice type including open water has a numerical value that is dependent on the ice category of the vessel. This number is called the Ice Multiplier (IM). The value of the Ice Multiplier reflects the level of risk or operational constraint that the particular ice type poses to each category of vessel. To find the applicable IM for your ship, refer to the Ice Multiplier Table and highlight the appropriate vertical column based on your ship category. This will comprise the IM for all the different ice types listed vertically on the left side of the table. If you do not know your ship category refer to your Arctic Pollution Prevention Certificate or Schedule V of the ASPPR.

Table 2: Ice Multipliers for Ship Category
WMO Ice Codes Ice Types Thickness Type E Type D Type C Type B Type A CAC 4 CAC 3
7•bullet or 9•bullet Old / Multi-Year Ice (MY) -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -3 -1
8•bullet Second-Year Ice (SY) -4 -4 -4 -4 -3 -2 1
6•bullet or 4•bullet Thick First-Year Ice (TFY) > 120 cm -3 -3 -3 -2 -1 1 2
1•bullet Medium First-Year Ice (MFY) 70-120 cm -2 -2 -2 -1 1 2 2
7 Thin First-Year Ice (FY) 30-70 cm -1 -1 -1 1 2 2 2
9 Thin First-Year Ice - 2nd Stage 50-70 cm -1 -1 -1 1 2 2 2
8 Thin First-Year Ice - 1st Stage 30-50 cm -1 -1 1 1 2 2 2
3 or 5 Grey-White Ice (GW) 15-30 cm -1 1 1 1 2 2 2
4 Grey Ice (G) 10-15 cm 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 Nilas, Ice Rind <10 cm 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 New Ice (N) <10 cm 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Brash (ice fragments < 2 m) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
equal Delta Bergy Water 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
¦¦¦three broken vertical bar OpenWater 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2.6.9.3 Calculating the Ice Numeral

The Ice Numeral (IN) is an assessment of an ice regime, in mathematical terms, which is used to determine whether the ship can enter a specific ice regime. In other words, an IN is the sum of the products of the concentration, in 1/10th increments, of each ice type and their respective Ice Multipliers in each regime. For any ice regime, an Ice Numeral (IN) is the sum of the products of:

  1. the concentration in tenths of each ice type, and
  2. the Ice Multipliers relating to the Type or Class of the ship in question.

where:

  • IN: Ice Numeral (refer to the list below - stated in grey in the Ice Multiplier list below)
  • Ca: Concentration in tenths of ice type "a" (stated in blue in the Ice Multiplier list below)
  • IMa: Ice Multiplier for ice type "a" (stated in red in the Ice Multiplier list below)

Equation: IN = (Ca x IMa) + (Cb x IMb) + ...

The term(s) on the right hand side of the equation (a, b, c, etc.) are repeated for as many ice types and each of their respective concentrations that may be present, including open water. Using arithmetic, the Ice Multipliers (IM) for the vessel and the Ice Concentrations (C- in tenths) of each ice type are combined in the following form:

Multi-year (MY) ice

[CMY x IMMY]

Concentration Multi-year ice multiplied by Ice Multiplier for Multi-year ice

Second-year(SY)ice

+ [CSY x IMSY]

Concentration Second-year ice multiplied by Ice Multiplier for Second-year ice

Thick first-year (TFY) ice

+ [CTFY x IMTFY]

Concentration Thick first-year ice multiplied by Ice Multiplier for Thick first-year ice

Grey-white (GW) ice

+ [CGW x IMGW]

Concentration Grey-white ice multiplied by Ice Multiplier for Grey-white ice

Grey (G) ice

+ [CG x IMG]

Concentration Grey ice multiplied by Ice Multiplier for Grey ice

New (N) ice

+ [CN x IMN]

Concentration New ice multiplied by Ice Multiplier for New ice

Open water (OW)

+ [COW x IMGOW]

Concentration Open water ice multiplied by Ice Multiplier for Open water ice

Thin first-year(FY) ice

+ [CFY x IMFY]

Concentration Thin first-year ice multiplied by Ice Multiplier for Thin first-year ice

Medium first-year(MFY) ice

+ [CMFY x IMMFY]

Concentration Medium first-year ice multiplied by Ice Multiplier for Medium first-year ice

IN =

?

The Ice Numeral is therefore unique to the particular ice regime and ship operating within its boundaries. The Ice Numeral for each regime must be zero or positive before transiting a regime and any application of AIRSS must be indicated with an Ice Regime Routing Message and an acknowledgement from NORDREG. If the Ice Numeral is NEGATIVE, the vessel should not proceed and an alternate route must be found.

2.6.9.4 Factors that may affect Ice Multipliers

Decayed Ice

For the purpose of the Ice Regime System, the definition states that decayed ice is multi-year ice, second-year ice, thick first-year ice, or medium first-year ice that has thaw holes formed or is rotten ice. For “decayed Ice" +1 may be added to that ice type's Ice Multiplier. As an example, if a Type B ship encounters decayed thick first-year ice, the Ice Multiplier changes from -2 to -1.

Ridged Ice

Where the total ice concentration in a particular regime is 6/10th's or greater, and at least 3/10th's of the area of an ice type (other than brash ice) is deformed by ridges, rubble or hummocking, the Ice Multiplier for that ice type, shall be decreased by 1. If, as an example a Type E ship finds a regime with ridged thin first-year ice, the Ice Multiplier changes from -1 to -2.

Brash Ice

Brash Ice has been given the same weighting as open water i.e. a +2 Ice Multiplier. Within the AIRSS concept this form of ice is intended to account for the ice predominately found in well-defined icebreaker tracks.

Trace of Old Ice

Traces of ice may be reported in forecasts or labeled on the left side of ice eggs. A trace means less than 1/10th ice concentration and is it not required to be part of the Ice Numeral calculation. If a trace of Old Ice is encountered, caution should be exercised when navigating due to the risk that this ice creates.

Note:

While doing any Ice Numeral calculation, remember that every regime is composed of an aggregate 10/10th concentration of various ice types. As an example, if an ice “egg" shows a total concentration of 6/10th's, remember that the other 4/10th is open water and should be accounted for in the IN calculation.

2.6.9.5 Examples of Ice Regimes and their Ice Numeral Calculations

The following examples are realistic Ice Numeral calculations based on ice “eggs" from the Canadian Ice Service Daily Ice Charts. For each case, two different ships were used to illustrate how the Ice Numerals fluctuate for the same ice with structurally different vessels.

Example 1 - Ice Egg

Interpretation: The Ice Regime consists of 8/10ths total ice concentration of which: 1/10th is Old ice and 7/10ths Thick First-Year ice. While doing the calculation remember to incorporate the 2/10ths of Open Water.

Ice Numeral Calculations:

  • Type A ship:
    • (1 x -4) + (7 x -1) + (2 x 2 for open water) = -7
    • Negative Regime
  • CAC 4 ship:
    • (1 x -4) + (7 x +1) + (2 x 2 for open water) = +7
    • Positive Regime

With Ridged thick first-year ice the Ice Numeral calculations would be:

  • Type A ship:
    • (1 x -4) + (7 x -2) + (2 x 2 for open water) = -14
    • Negative Regime
  • CAC 4 ship:
    • (1 x -4) + (7 x 0) + (2 x 2 for open water) = 0
    • Positive Regime
Example 2 - Ice Egg

Interpretation: This July 9th Ice Regime consists of 6/10ths total concentration of ice of which 1/10th is Old ice, 4/10ths is Thick First-Year and 1/10th of Medium First-Year ice.

Ice Numeral Calculations:

  • Type E ship:
    • (1 x -4) + (4 x -3) + (1 x -2) + (4 x +2, open water) = -10
    • Negative
  • Type A ship:
    • (1 x -4) + (4 x -1) + (1 x +1) + (4 x +2, open water) = +1
    • Positive

or If this regime happened to be Decayed based upon data on an ice chart:

With Decayed ice (all Ice Types) the Ice Numeral calculations are:

  • Type E ship:
    • (1 x -3) + (4 x -2) + (1 x -1) + (4 x +2, open water) =-4
    • Negative
  • Type A ship:
    • (1 x -3) + (4 x 0) + (1 x +2) + (4 x +2, open water) =+7
    • Positive
Example 3 - Ice Egg

Interpretation: The Ice Regime consists of 9/10ths plus total concentration1 of ice in which there is a trace of Multi-Year ice, 7/10ths Thin First-Year and 3/10ths of Grey-White ice.

Note:

A trace of Multi-Year or Old ice creates a high risk transit.

Ice Numeral Calculations:

  • CAC 4 ship:
    • (7 x 2) + (3 x 2) = +20
    • Positive
  • Type C ship:
    • (7 x -1) + (3 x 1) = -4
    • Negative
Example 4 - Ice Egg

Interpretation: This data that has been interpreted from remote sensing imagery indicates that this regime of 9/10ths plus V ice, consists of: 3/10ths Old ice, 4/10ths of First-Year (considered thick) and 3/10ths of Young ice (considered Grey-White).

Ice Numeral Calculations:

  • Type B ship:
    • (3 x -4) + (4 x -2) + (3 x +1) = -17
    • Negative Regime
  • CAC 3 ship:
    • (3 x -1) + (4 x +2) + (3 x +2) = +11
    • Positive Regime

2.6.9.6 Negative Ice Numerals

While using the Ice Regime System, intentional entry into a negative ice regime outside the Zone/Date limits is prohibited. While navigating in the Arctic, the Master or Ice Navigator should consider several options to avoid encountering negative regimes:

  1. selecting a safe route composed entirely of positive regimes,
  2. obtaining more recent and / or higher quality ice information,
  3. waiting for improved weather or ice conditions, or
  4. requesting the assistance of an icebreaker by calling NORDERG.

NORDREG and the CCG Icebreaking Superintendent will be able to provide additional information to assist in these circumstances and will have up-to-date knowledge of the positions of icebreakers.

Escorted Operations

When ice conditions prevent, or significantly impede a ship's operations, it may be desirable or necessary to work together with another vessel or be escorted. Escorted operations are specifically allowed for in the Ice Regime System, and must be considered on an individual basis while planning routes and defining local ice regimes. Under some circumstances an escort can be effective in easing the ice conditions along the route, however, if the escort's broken track is too narrow, if the ice is under pressure, the effectiveness of an escort can be severely limited.

The icebreaker will decide whether it is safe to break a track, but the Master of the escorted ship must continue to evaluate the conditions in order to decide whether it is safe to follow, and at what speed. Communications and operating procedures must be established before any escort operation starts and maintained throughout. The following are factors to consider regarding the escort:

  • the width of the broken track, in comparison with the following ship's beam,
  • the size, thickness, and strength of the ice pieces left in the track, and
  • the likelihood of pressure conditions, which may cause the track to close rapidly.

The track of an escort and surrounding conditions should be treated as a separate Ice Regime. Extreme caution must be exercised when working in an icebreaker's track due to the confined aspect of the track.

Early Season Voyage

An early season voyage can be described as a voyage where the vessel intends to enter the Arctic prior to the main onset of melt and expects enter a zone outside of the Zone / Date System. Entry could be possible under the Ice Regime System if there is an indication of positive Ice Numerals. In this case it will be necessary for the vessel to have on board an Ice Navigator and send an Ice Regime Routing Message to NORDREG. Following the voyage an After Action Report must be submitted even though only positive Ice Numerals may have been encountered.

Late Season Voyage

Late season voyages deserve special attention because of the certainty that ice conditions will worsen during the voyage, and the possibility that they will deteriorate rapidly. Severe, late season storms can cause pressure events and move large quantities of Multi-Year ice from high latitudes into the shipping channels.

With these voyages, a vessel may wish to enter a zone outside the Zone / Date System and entry is permitted provided there is an Ice Navigator on board, an Ice Regime Routing Message is sent to NORDREG that illustrates positive ice regimes. On late season voyages this communication with NORDREG is very important considering that the availability of Icebreaker support may be crucial if ice conditions deteriorate rapidly.

2.6.10 Guidelines for the Operation of Passenger Vessels in Canadian Arctic Waters TP 13670

The objective of these guidelines is to assist cruise operators, and their agents, in the planning of Arctic cruises and in making contact with all relevant Canadian government authorities well in advance to ensure that all the required publications are on board the ships and have been studied before entering Canadian Arctic waters and that the operation complies with all applicable regulations. The guidelines are available on the Transport Canada website.

2.6.11 Marine Environmental Handbook, Arctic Northwest Passage

The Marine Environmental Handbook for the Arctic Northwest Passage was compiled to provide information on the Arctic environment to mariners who are planning to use the busiest part of the Northwest Passage. The handbook describes the adverse environmental effects that could arise from shipping activities on the traditional use patterns on the ice surface (hunting and transportation) or on bird, animal or fish populations. It also suggests mitigating measures for ship operations, on-ice vehicles and aircraft. It can be purchased from an authorized CHS chart dealer.

Examples of the environmental sensitivity to marine shipping in the Southern route of the Northwest Passage in the Autumn are shown in Figures 11 and 12.

Figure 11: Environmental sensitivity in Coronation Gulf in the Fall

Map of Environmental sensitivity in Coronation Gulf in the Fall

Figure 12: Environmental sensitivity to ships in Lancaster Sound in the Fall

Map of Environmental sensitivity to ships in Lancaster Sound in the Fall